The new challenge is not which browser the user will use, but on which device they will run the browser.
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The latest versions of most modern browsers are considered evergreen browsers. That is, in theory, they are supposed to automatically update themselves silently without prompting the user. This move towards self-updating browsers has been in reaction to the slow process of eliminating older browsers that do not auto-update. As of today, most front-end developers use Chrome and "Chrome Dev Tools" to develop front-end code. However, the most used modern browsers all offer a flavor of developer tools.
Picking one to use for development is a subjective choice. The more important issue is knowing which browsers, on which devices, you have to support and then testing appropriately.
The Domain Name System DNS is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide.
The Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of most Internet services because it is the Internet's primary directory service. A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. User Interface Design - User interface design UI or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing the user experience.
The goal of user interface design is to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals user-centered design. Interaction Design Pattern - A design pattern is a formal way of documenting a solution to a common design problem.
The idea was introduced by the architect Christopher Alexander for use in urban planning and building architecture, and has been adapted for various other disciplines, including teaching and pedagogy, development organization and process, and software architecture and design. User experience design encompasses traditional human—computer interaction HCI design, and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service as perceived by users.
Human—Computer Interaction - Human—computer interaction HCI researches the design and use of computer technology, focusing particularly on the interfaces between people users and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that lets humans interact with computers in novel ways. Minimally I'd suggest reading the following canonical texts on the matter so one can support and potential build usable user interfaces.
Search engine optimization SEO is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's unpaid results — often referred to as "natural," "organic," or "earned" results. In general, the earlier or higher ranked on the search results page , and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search, news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.
Unlike the Document Object Model, there is no standard for implementation and no strict definition, so browser vendors are free to implement the BOM in any way they wish. However, do what makes sense to your brain. Web typography refers to the use of fonts on the World Wide Web. When HTML was first created, font faces and styles were controlled exclusively by the settings of each Web browser. However, the font specified by the tag had to be installed on the user's computer or a fallback font, such as a browser's default sans-serif or monospace font, would be used.
The first Cascading Style Sheets specification was published in and provided the same capabilities. The CSS2 specification was released in and attempted to improve the font selection process by adding font matching, synthesis and download. These techniques did not gain much use, and were removed in the CSS2. However, Internet Explorer added support for the font downloading feature in version 4.
Font downloading was later included in the CSS3 fonts module, and has since been implemented in Safari 3. This has subsequently increased interest in Web typography, as well as the usage of font downloading. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity. The concept focuses on enabling access for people with disabilities, or special needs, or enabling access through the use of assistive technology; however, research and development in accessibility brings benefits to everyone.
Accessibility is not to be confused with usability, which is the extent to which a product such as a device, service, or environment can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Accessibility is strongly related to universal design which is the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations.
If you need help understanding the role of state management beyond React's setState watch, " Advanced State Management in React feat. Redux and MobX ". Unlike traditional applications, progressive web apps are a hybrid of regular web pages or websites and a mobile application. This new application model attempts to combine features offered by most modern browsers with the benefits of mobile experience. In , designer Frances Berriman and Google Chrome engineer Alex Russell coined the term "Progressive Web Apps" to describe apps taking advantage of new features supported by modern browsers, including Service Workers and Web App Manifests, that let users upgrade web apps to be first-class applications in their native OS.
Web development tools allow web developers to test and debug their code.
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They are different from website builders and IDEs in that they do not assist in the direct creation of a webpage, rather they are tools used for testing the user facing interface of a website or web application. Web development tools come as browser add-ons or built in features in web browsers. The most popular web browsers today like, Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer, and Safari have built in tools to help web developers, and many additional add-ons can be found in their respective plugin download centers.
Due to the increasing demand from web browsers to do more popular web browsers have included more features geared for developers. While most browsers come equipped with web developer tools, the Chrome developer tools are currently the most talked about and widely used. I'd suggest learning and using the Chrome web developer tools , simply because the best resources for learning web developer tools revolves around Chrome DevTools.
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing software packages for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner. It typically maintains a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites.
A component of software configuration management, version control, also known as revision control or source control, is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number," "revision level," or simply "revision.
Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the person making the change. Revisions can be compared, restored, and with some types of files, merged. The most common solution used for version control today is Git. Learn it! Build automation is the process of automating the creation of a software build and the associated processes including: compiling computer source code into binary code, packaging binary code, and running automated tests. Gulp is great. However, you might only need npm run. Before turning to additional complexity in your application stack ask yourself if npm run can do the job.
If you need more, use Gulp. Web performance optimization, WPO, or website optimization is the field of knowledge about increasing the speed in which web pages are downloaded and displayed on the user's web browser. With the average internet speed increasing globally, it is fitting for website administrators and webmasters to consider the time it takes for websites to render for the visitor. Unit Testing - In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine whether they are fit for use.
Intuitively, one can view a unit as the smallest testable part of an application. Functional Testing - Functional testing is a quality assurance QA process and a type of black box testing that bases its test cases on the specifications of the software component under test.
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Functions are tested by feeding them input and examining the output, and internal program structure is rarely considered not like in white-box testing. Functional testing usually describes what the system does. It occurs after unit testing and before validation testing.
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Integration testing takes as its input modules that have been unit tested, groups them in larger aggregates, applies tests defined in an integration test plan to those aggregates, and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. Headless browsers provide automated control of a web page in an environment similar to popular web browsers, but are executed via a command line interface or using network communication.
Google stated in that using a headless browser could help their search engine index content from websites that use AJAX.
PhantomJS is no longer maintained , Headless Chrome steps in. Offline development aka offline first is an area of knowledge and discussion around development practices for devices that are not always connected to the Internet or a power source. A website or web application can run on a wide range of computers, laptops, tablets and phones, as well as a handful of new devices watches, thermostats, fridges, etc.
How you determine what devices you'll support and how you will develop to support those devices is called, "multi-device development strategy". Below, I list the most common multi-device development strategies. This chapter highlights a few options for instructor directed learning via front-end development schools, courses, programs, and bootcamps. The table below contains a small selection of instructor-led courses i. Use the table to get a general idea of what is available, the cost, duration, and locations of courses.
Be aware the information can change quickly. If you can't afford a directed education can be very expensive , a self directed education using screencasts, books, and articles is a viable alternative to learn front-end development for the self-driven individual. This chapter identifies the tools of the trade.