Survey data indicate that Africans support democracy and its formal institutions, but also point to the importance of the informal realm, particularly when formal institutions fail to meet popular expectations. After a decade and a half, how do citizens of postcommunist Europe now feel toward their new governing regimes? Sub-Saharan Africa has been traditionally depicted as a place where formal institutional rules are largely irrelevant-yet in the past fifteen years these rules have come to matter, and this trend is unlikely to reverse.
Pervasive corruption hampers India's democracy, yet anticorruption movements may be helping to improve governmental accountability. Contemporary liberal democracies, especially in Western Europe, face a major challenge in integrating Muslim immigrants as citizens of pluralistic societies. Taking advantage of the withdrawal of Syrian troops, Lebanese voters capped the "Beirut Spring" by electing a new majority in parliament.
The gains for freedom in the Middle East were the most significant seen since the Freedom House survey began in Burundi's leaders are learning to embrace a culture of discussion and consensus that offers a way out of the abyss of civil war. Data from Africa show that repeated elections, regardless of their relative freeness or fairness,appear to have a positive impact on the growth of civil liberties and democratic values.
Subject: Civil society.
Young 1 Daniel N. Posner 1 Danielle N. Lussier 1 Darin Christensen 1 Darren C. North 1 Driss Khrouz 1 E. Jenne 1 Ernest A.
Mark Ruhl 1 J. Wasserstrom 1 Jeremy M.
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Lindberg 1 Stephan Haggard 1 Stephen N. Finkel 1 Subrata K. Mitra 1 Suhas Palshikar 1 Susan J. Gold 1 Thomas Carothers 1 Thomas D. Zweifel 1 Timothy S. Shah 1 Valerie J. Levada 1 Zoltan Barany 1. Articles Civil society Political culture 67 Democratic transition 48 Elections 46 Democratic consolidation 32 Corruption 27 Political parties 26 Accountability 24 Communism 21 Economic development 19 Rule of law 19 Democracy promotion 18 Human rights 16 Islam 16 Defining democracy 14 Religion 13 Authoritarianism 12 Economic reform 10 Nongovernmental organizations 10 Capitalism 8 Opposition movements 8 Media 7 Civil-military relations 6 Liberalism 6 Ethnic conflict 5 Globalization 5 International organizations 5 Nationalism 5 Constitutions 4 European Union 4 Minorities 4 Protests 4 Secularism 4 Freedom in the World 3 Gender 3 Authoritarian influence 2 Civil liberties 2 Competitive authoritarianism 2 Crime and policing 2 Federalism 2 Kleptocracy 2 Public opinion 2 Democratic decline 1 Economic inequality 1 Human rights 1 Institutions 1 Islamism 1 Postconflict societies 1.
Subjects: Civil society. Mitra The relationship between democracy and civil society is not straightforward. July , Volume 24, Issue 3 Putin versus Civil Society: Outlawing the Opposition Miriam Lanskoy Elspeth Suthers The Putin regime, having faced its first real challenge in the form of mass protests after the Duma elections, is responding with a series of laws intended to intimidate its civil-society opposition, if not stamp it out altogether.
April , Volume 24, Issue 2 Armies and Revolutions Zoltan Barany A key factor in determining the success or failure of revolutions is how the national armed forces react. Weinstein Darin Christensen A number of countries including Russia and post-Mubarak Egypt are taking aggressive steps to limit or stop foreign funds from flowing to domestic NGOs that promote human rights and democracy. October , Volume 23, Issue 4 The Opening in Burma: Strengthening Civil Society Min Ko Naing For the country to develop, it needs an informed and engaged citizenry that has the knowledge and freedom to question those in power.
Erin K. Lussier M. Steven Fish Indonesia, a populous, poor, predominantly Muslim society, has been able to maintain democracy thanks to a vibrant associational life. Juan Pablo Luna Rodrigo Mardones For the first time since the fall of Pinochet, the Chilean right has come to power via free elections.
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April , Volume 21, Issue 2 Indonesia: The Irony of Success Edward Aspinall Indonesia is widely lauded as a democratic success story for rolling back the military, keeping radical Islam in check, and institutionalizing democratic freedoms. Mark Ruhl A Central American military once again returned to the political center stage in , but this had less to do with power-hungry generals than with warring civilian elites whose respect for liberal-democratic principles proved to be questionable at best.
April , Volume 21, Issue 2 Trouble in Central America: Crime, Hard Times, and Discontent Mitchell A Seligson John A Booth Amid a climate of rising crime and insecurity as well as economic uncertainty produced by the global downturn, can the study of public opinion and attitudes reveal which Central American countries are most at risk of democratic reversals? April , Volume 21, Issue 2 The Freedom House Survey for The Erosion Accelerates Arch Puddington Although the overall state of freedom in the world has clearly improved over the last two decades, more recent trends are worrisome.
January , Volume 21, Issue 1 Twenty Years of Postcommunism: The Other Transition Alina Mungiu-Pippidi Seven leading experts on Central Europe and the former Soviet Union examine the progress of democratization in the postcommunist world since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and point to the challenges that lie ahead. January , Volume 21, Issue 1 Twenty Years of Postcommunism: Freedom and the State Ghia Nodia This is a central problem—perhaps the central problem—for classical liberal theory and its crucial distinction between the state of nature and the civil state.
Yom Jordan gets much good press for having one of the more open and liberal regimes in the Arab world, but that reputation masks a considerably grimmer reality. Elizabeth J. Perry Despite the suppression of the Tiananmen Uprising of , popular protest in China has by all accounts escalated steadily over the ensuing two decades. Wasserstrom Some of the many China stories to attract attention recently have involved NIMBY Not in My Backyard protests by largely middle class crowds gathering to demand a greater say in urban development plans.
Nadia Diuk Of all of the national republics that emerged out of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has had the most profound difficulties in determining its national identity. Thomas Carothers Democracy-aid providers are moving away from one-size-fits-all strategies and are adapting their programs to diverse political contexts. Ferment in Civil Society Carl Gershman Orlando Gutierrez The opposition within Cuba has become more diverse as well as more unified, and the regime, despite its enduring capacity for repression, is showing signs of underlying weakness. Weingast Douglass C.
Bunce Structure, agency, and process all are critical in explaining the uneven pattern of electoral change in postcommunist Europe and Eurasia. A national TV poll finds that a comforting 50 percent of the public is not against M. Chirac 15 percent of those polled were very shocked by his comments, 32 percent were somewhat shocked, 17 percent were perhaps not shocked while 33 percent were not at all shocked.
Among its statements Drugs, violence, delinquency Should we close our eyes when immigrants are involved for fear of being called racist?
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No, absolutely not! Jean-Louis Bianco announces stricter control of borders and punishment of abuses of immigration laws.
On the subject of deportation, Bianco signals that there is a problem with using regular airlines because of protestations and difficulties on the part of the deportees. He points out that France currently refuses 85 percent of demands for asylum. Pasqua affirms France's need for foreign labor. Le Pen continues to stir the soup, saying during a London visit that the probable invasion of our territory by foreign hordes could lead to a logic of war British Labour Party deputies demand his expulsion from the UK.
Pierre Mouroy accepts the need to deal with the problem of illegal immigration, but cautions that any socialist concessions to public opinion on the issue would cause them to lose the elections, and their honor! The ruling Socialists, in disarray after Chirac's offensive succeeds in galvanizing public opinion, begin to make nearly spectacular concessions.
The socialist minority faction of M. Chevenement declares its support for M. Pasqua's quota proposal. Prime Minister Cresson provokes another burst of controversy by envisaging the use of charter flights to carry out deportations. She states, jokingly I understand that an airline pilot would not want an extremely agitated person on his plane Charters are for people going on vacation at lower prices.
In this case, it would be completely free and not for going on vacation Cresson responds to criticism by saying that she is neither drifting nor slipping to the right - simply that the law has to be respected.