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Some are much smaller.

The smallest species are the Brazilian two-toed toadlet and the Cuban Iberian rain frog, which only grow to about 0. These compare with the unusually large Goliath frog, which can grow to Depending on the species, the skin on a frog may be smooth, somewhat bumpy, or covered with warts. Although many people think that all warty frogs can be called toads, only those in one family of frogs are true toads. The members of this family typically have chubby bodies, rather short hind legs, and many warts.

What sets them apart from other frogs—even those that are also chubby, warty, and short-legged—is something called a Bidder's organ. A Bidder's organ is a female body part that is found inside a male toad.

Grzimek's Student Animal Life Resource

This tiny organ does not appear to do anything in a healthy male toad, but it does help scientists tell a true toad from all other kinds of frogs. A great number of frogs are green, brown, gray, and other colors that look much like the background in the place they live.

They also have spots, stripes, and other patterns that help them blend into their surroundings. Many of the poison frogs, among others, are not camouflaged. They have bright colors that make them very noticeable. Most species of frogs lay eggs that hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles are sometimes described as a sack of guts with a mouth at one end and a tail at the other. Often, the mouth on a tadpole is hard like the beak of a bird and is able to scrape bits of plants off the sides of underwater rocks.

Some tadpoles instead have a fleshy mouth. These tadpoles suck in water and strain little bits of food out of it. Including their tails, tadpoles are often as long as or longer than the adult frogs. As the tadpoles change into young frogs, however, the tail slowly becomes shorter and shorter until it is gone.

They do not live in extremely cold areas, such as the Arctic , or on many of the islands out in the ocean. The largest number of frog species is in hot and humid tropical areas, but some make their homes in places that have all four seasons, including a cold winter. Frogs usually stay out of very dry areas, but the water-holding frog and a few others are able to survive in dry grasslands and even deserts.

The majority of frogs live in valleys, lowlands, or only partway up the sides of mountains. Some, however, survive quite well high above the ground. The Pakistani toad is perhaps the highest-living frog. It makes its mountain home at 16, feet 5, meters above sea level in the Himalayas. The majority of frogs start their lives in the water as eggs, then hatch into tadpoles, which remain in the water until they turn into froglets.

At that point, frogs of some species may leave the water and make their homes on land, while others may stay in the water. Some species are able to survive without ever having to even dip their feet in a puddle. Most of these frogs spend hours everyday underground or in some other moist place. A number of frog species that live in dry areas, such as grasslands or deserts, stay underground and enter a state of deep sleep, called estivation es-tih-VAY-shun for much of the year.

There, they wait for the rainy season and then climb back up to the ground to eat and to mate.

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Other frogs that live in colder places that have a frigid winter find shelter, sometimes also underground, and also enter a state of deep sleep, called hibernation high-bur-NAY-shun. They remain in hibernation until warmer weather arrives in the spring.

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Most frogs eat mainly plants when they are tadpoles and switch to a diet of mainly insects once they turn into froglets. Some tadpoles also eat little bits of dead animal matter that float down to the bottom of the water, and the tadpoles of a few species will even eat an insect or other invertebrate in-VER-teh-breht , which is an animal without a backbone. Not all adult frogs will only eat insects.

Many of the larger species will gulp down anything they can catch and swallow.

Into the Forest: Amphibian Nature Documentary

Bullfrogs, which are common throughout much of North America , are one type of frog that will almost eat anything that comes within reach, including ducklings and other bullfrogs. Like other amphibians, frogs can breathe through their skin, but they can only do so if the skin is moist.

Most frogs are active at night, which is when the air is more humid. Humid air helps them keep their skin moist. During the daytime, these frogs sit still in moist places, like under a rotting log, in a muddy place, underground, or in the crack of a rock. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Publisher: Cengage Learning. Click to have a closer look.

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