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When the alloys were thermally annealed, these irregularities in the grain boundaries disappeared Gonzalez-Rodriguez J. Generally, heat treatment of thermally sprayed deposits can release residual stress, decrease the porosity and improve the microstructure and properties of the deposits Wang H. Here are some studies on the heat treatment of thermal spray coatings.

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Both micro structural characterization and porosity determination were carried out before and after the heat treatments. It was determined that both treatments had reduced the porosity considerably, and this reduction was accompanied by pronounced micro structural changes regarding the disappearance of the initial lamellar structure, a more uniform distribution of the hard phases, and a decrease in the number of micro cracks and unmelted particles.

The hardness and wear resistance of a thermal- sprayed self-fluxing alloy Niwt. Porosity is decreased from 20 to 0. The abrasive wear resistance is much improved compared with that of Stellite 6 Shieh Yune-Hua et al. Sundararajan G. Heat treatment reduced the porosity, improved inter-splat bonding, increased the elastic modulus and more importantly increased the corrosion resistance of the cold sprayed SS L coating Sundararajan G. Through the optimum parameters, a coating containing approximately 27 wt. Studies showed that the thermal treatment of the coating resulted in a reduction of tensile strength, but the improvement of impact toughness, although the coating had little effect on the mechanical properties of the bulk.

Wei P. Alloys included 50Ni—50Al at. The tests were complemented by X-raydiffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and micro-analyses. Results showed that NiAl-base alloy without heat treatment presented the lowest corrosion rate even lower than Ni3 Al alloy but still higher than conventional L- type stainless steel.

In general terms, by either by heat treating these base alloys or by adding Li, the mass loss was increased. This effect was produced because by adding Li the adhesion of the external protective layer was decreased by inducing a higher number of discontinuities inside the grain boundaries.

When the alloys were thermally annealed, these irregularities in the grain boundaries disappeared, decreasing the number of paths for the outwards diffusion of Al from the alloy to form the external, protective Al2 O3 layer Gonzalez- Rodriguez J. It is difficult to deposit dense intermetallic compound coatings by cold spraying directly using compound feedstock powders due to their intrinsic low temperature 4.

A method to prepare intermetallic compound coatings in-situ employing cold spraying was developed using a metastable alloy powder assisted with post heat treatment. A method to prepare intermetallic composite coatings employing the cost-efficient electric arc spraying twin wires assistant with suitable heat treatment was developed.

In this study, a Fe—Al composite coating was produced by spraying twin wires, i. The inter-deposited Fe—Al coating was transformed in-situ to Fe—Al intermetallic composite coating after a post annealing treatment. The effect of annealing treatment conditions on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by using XRD, SEM, EDS and OM as well as micro hardness tester.

The results show that the desirable intermetallic phases such as Fe2 Al5 , FeAl and Fe3 Al are obtained under the annealing condition. The main oxide in the coating is FeO which can partially transform to Fe3 O4 up to the annealing condition Chen Yongxiong et al. Bolelli et al. In general, the heat treatment has two major effects on the tested coatings: it improves interlamellar cohesion, reducing active corrosion along interlamellar boundaries, but can also trigger galvanic microcells at intralamellar level, because of the formation of secondary phases.

The first, beneficial effect prevails in the case of Co and D coatings, so that an overall improvement in their corrosion resistance is found and they have lower corrosion current density, less active corrosion at interlamellar boundaries and improved corrodkote test resistance. The heat treatment is therefore an effective way to improve the overall performance of the Co and D coatings. The properties of the heat-treated Co coating are particularly significant when compared to those of electrolytic hard chrome EHC.

By coupling the corrosion test outcomes to former results on tribological behaviour, we find that the corrosion resistance of heat-treated Co is comparable to that of EHC and its tribological characteristics far surpass EHC under various contact conditions.

By contrast, the effects of the heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of Ni are less obvious. Most importantly, after the heat treatment, the Ni coating shows greater sensitivity to crevice corrosion, so that its overall corrosion resistance may seem to be reduced by the heat treatment G. Bolelli and L. This coating is mainly amorphous due to splat quenching; thus, it has low hardness and toughness, resulting in poor tribological performance—particularly, its low hardness promotes adhesive wear against Cr6 steel pins.

Adhesion causes a rapid increase in friction coefficient, and consequently the contact point temperature reaches a critical value where rapid oxidation occurs. Oxides decrease the friction coefficient, but they are not particularly adherent to the contacting surfaces and mostly form debris. Therefore, friction increases again and continues to oscillate periodically because adhesive wear continues to raise flash temperature up to the critical value.


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Most of the wear loss occurs in the first stage, where adhesion is particularly severe due to direct contact between metallic surfaces. In the tests against alumina pin, the sample wear rate is smaller because less adhesion takes place; abrasive wear is prevalent, but the Co-base alloy has sufficient intrinsic plasticity to withstand it without undergoing too much cutting wear.

However, the fast oxidation process, with peculiar friction coefficient behavior, still takes place. Adhesive phenomena between coating and steel pin are thus definitely reduced; the wear loss is negligible for the coating and decreased by two orders of magnitude for the pin; no friction coefficient peaks occur nor is fast oxidation started.

Instead, friction coefficient soon gets to a steady value. The coating wear rate against alumina 5.

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Heat Treatment of Thermal Spray Coatings: A Review pin is not significantly changed because abrasive wear still prevails, so there are no major changes in the wear process. However, adhesive phenomena are further reduced, preventing the appearance of friction coefficient peaks and of fast oxidation. Lusvarghi, Hence it has been observed that with the heat treatment of thermal spray coatings better results can be obtained in post treatment of the coatings for enhancing their life for different applications but not much work has been done in this field to post treat the coatings and by changing the parameters like Temperature and time of heat treatment better results can be obtained in post treatment of the coatings.

Sundararajan, P. Sudharshan Phani, A. Podchernyaeva, A.

Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, pdf - PDF Drive

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